Arboriculture – The professional care and management of trees.
Bracing – A method used to support a weak area of a tree using rods, cables or straps without having to significantly reduce or remove the weaker area of the tree.
Clean Out – This is the removal of all dead, dying and diseased branches; in addition branches that are crossing one another are removed and climbing plants like ivy.
Co-dominant Stems – When two or more main stems of equal size compete for dominance. Such stems tend to fail much more often than others.
Conservation Area – Notice must be given to the Local Planning Authority (LPA) at least six weeks prior to any proposed tree works being carried out.
Coppicing – A traditional method carried out on a rotation basis, whereby tree stems are cut down to the stump to stimulate new growth.
Crown – The collective area of the tree formed by the branches and foliage above the stem (the trunk up to the first branch).
Crown Clean – The removal of dead, dying, damaged or diseased wood. It also includes removal of crossing branches, dangerous branches, epicormic growth and climbing plants such as Ivy from the crown of a tree.
Crown Lift/Raise – Pruning the lower branches of the tree to a specified height above ground level to provide an increased head clearance, providing clearance for vehicle access, pedestrians and buildings etc.
Crown Reductions – A pruning method used to reduce the size or circumference of the trees crown when the tree has grown too large for its surroundings. It involves reducing branch length while maintaining the same basic shape.
Sometimes can be measured in percentages however many people become confused by this, for example a 30% reduction does not mean 1/3 off the top and side of the tree. It means 30% from the outer branch tips and foliage where necessary to maintain an overall shape.
Crown Thinning – Is a selective pruning method which involves removing branches from a dense tree canopy. Aimed at reducing stress on branches such as increased weight. It allows an increased amount of light and wind to pass through the crown.
Deadwood Removal – Refers to the removal of deadwood which naturally occurs within tree canopy. This has a liability of falling and can pose a risk to the public depending on the tree’s location. Extensive deadwood could suggest the tree is in decline.
Dead/Dying/Diseased/Dangerous – Any trees which are dead dyeing, diseased or dangerous legally permit work to be carried out on them even if they are covered by a Tree Preservation Order or are in a Conservation Area.
Decay – Damage of internal living tissues in a tree caused by fungi which affects its strength and stability.
Decline – A term used to describe the appearance of a tree showing signs of stress, lack of vigour or is dying. This could be due to disease, infection or environmental factors.
Dieback – Decline that proceeds slowly from the tips of branches in towards the trunk.
Dismantling – Is the procedure used to fell a tree piece by piece when there is a lack of safe space to fell it whole.
Epicormic Growth – Small shoots which grow from the base of a tree, on the main stem, on branches and from buds. Can be a sign of stress, damage or is stimulated by pruning.
Formative Pruning – Pruning of a tree while it is still young to maintain a particular shape and reduce likelihood of future problems.
Fruiting Bodies – The spore bearing body of a fungus infecting a tree.
Hedgerows – can make an important contribution to the character of an area and may be historically (and occasionally archaeologically) important as indications of land use and previous ownership. They also contribute significantly to biodiversity.
The removal of a hedgerow is unlikely to require planning permission, but if removal is proposed as part of a planning application then its impact on the heritage significance of the area and its impact on the setting of any heritage assets around may be taken into account in accordance with planning policies in the
National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) and the local development plan.
Aside from the planning system, hedgerows are offered some protection under The Hedgerow Regulations 1997. This complex mechanism offers some protection for hedgerows of more than 20 metres in length or which join other hedgerows provided they adjoin agricultural land, forestry, paddocks, common land, village greens, a site of special scientific interest or a local nature reserve.
A hedgerow is ‘important’ if it has existed for 30 years or more and it meets one of the criteria set out in the Regulations, which include:
- It marks a boundary between parishes existing before 1850;
- It marks an archaeological feature of a site that is a scheduled monument or noted on the Historic Environment Record;
- It marks the boundary of a pre-1600 estate or manor or a field system pre-dating the Enclosure Acts.
Hedge Trimming – Allen Groundcare can maintain your hedging including trimming back to create a neat and tidy form to reducing in height and width. We can also shape your hedging as requested.
High Hedge – Hedges deemed to be too high and cause a nuisance to the enjoyment of a neighbouring property.
Included Bark – The bark of close parts of a tree which are in face-to-face contact, these areas are commonly weak.
Mulch – The woody material which after being processed into chips can be laid down over the rooting area of a plant to reduce weed growth and retain moisture.
Planting – Allen Groundcare we can also supply and plant a range of trees, shrubs and hedging plants. We can also give professional advice on what to plant and where to plant with creation of plating schemes from simple replacement trees up to garden tree and shrub landscaping and up to large-scale commercial planting projects. We can even provide the valued after care maintenance advice and plan formative pruning schedules.
Pollarding – This involves the removal of whole branches to leave only the main trunk. In species such as willows and poplars, significant pruning is acceptable with new branches developing from the pollard heads. Secondary pruning of the new wood can help form a new canopy to the tree several years after the initial pollard. This is carried out to encourage new healthy growth and can be carried out on a rotational basis.
Pruning – This involves the removal of twigs, branches or roots by cutting them off with a saw. All cuts wound the tree. Therefore care must be taken, it is also important to ensure pruning takes place at the right time of year for the species.
Remedial Action – This involves tree works which are carried out to remove the risk of injury to people or damage to property.
Ring Barking – Also called Girdling, involves physical damage to the bark on the stem which destroys the internal tissues that transport water and food. This results in the death of the tree.
Root Pruning – Often necessary for the installation of root barriers, root pruning is also often required on development sites where digging is essential within the designated root protection area. In these cases it is advisable to use a professional arborist who has been trained, and is experienced in these techniques.
Root Protection Area (RPA) – This is the area around the tree base that contains sufficient rooting volume to ensure the survival of the tree in the event of nearby soil disturbance (as on a development site).
Site Clearance – We specialise in site clearance for construction and engineering projects as well as clearing up after floods. This covers vegetation clearance of all types. We are also able to provide a mulching service, which allow us to compact all vegetation on site to woodchip mulch.
Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI’s) – These are areas which under UK law are protected for conservation purposes. Specified activities such as tree works are prohibited without prior consent.
Stem – The supporting structure of a tree from ground level up to the first branch which slowly expands are the tree grows older. It also transports water and food around the plant.
Stump grinding/removal – With our range of stump grinder sizes we are able to remove any size of tree stump in most locations. This method causes little disturbance and allows the client to be able to use the site straight away for replacement planting or for other work the client may require.
Timber Extraction – At Allen Groundcare have the machinery such as a timber trailer and grab for the removal of heavy timber from the site saving time, energy and money.
Trees in Conservation Areas – if you intend carrying out works to a tree in a conservation area must give at least six weeks notice to the local planning authority. There are exceptions to this requirement, including when the tree is dead, dying or has become dangerous. This notice period gives the local planning authority the opportunity to decide if it is necessary to impose a tree preservation order on the tree in order to discharge its duty to have special regard to the desirability of preserving or enhancing the character or appearance of the conservation area.
If the authority decides the tree is not a part of the special character or appearance of the area it may give consent or allow the notice to lapse without response. Otherwise it should refuse consent and consider imposing a tree preservation order. It is a criminal offence to carry out works to a tree where consent has been refused or where notice was required and not served on the local planning authority.
Trees in conservation areas that are already subject to tree preservation orders are subject to that regime only and no separate conservation area notice is required.
Where a tree in a conservation area has been removed illegally or because it is dead, dying or dangerous or causing a nuisance, a replacement tree must be planted by law. The tree must be of an appropriate size and species. The local planning authority can enforce this requirement and ultimately come onto the land itself to carry out the planting and then recover the cost from the owner.
Tree Preservation Order (TPO) – An order made by the Local Planning Authority. Consent is required for any works to be carried out.
Tree Removal – At Allen Groundcare we carry out all aspects of tree care including tree cutting and felling. Capable of dealing with trees of any size for both commercial and domestic customers.
Veteran Tree – Means a tree which, because of its great age, size or condition is of exceptional value culturally and for conservation. Usually measure above 3m in diameter to be distinguished as veteran.
Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981 – This Act makes it an offence to intentionally kill, injure or take any wild bird or their eggs or nests. This Act covers roosting bats and lists all other protected species.